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Soya Meal

Introduction
The soya meal is extracted from the soya bean, regarded as an important crop throughout the world. Soya meal is regarded as the best vegetable protein food source and accounts for over 65% of the world's protein requirements. Much of the soya feed is used as animal feed and rest is used for varied human consumption purposes like in baking and meat substitutes. A solvent extraction method is used in the production of the soya meal where the beans are first crushed and subsequently, the soya oil and soya meal are extracted. It is a highly preferred food source as it is easily digestible, protein rich and also due to its energy giving nature. Soya bean is the preferred oilseed after groundnuts of which India is the largest producer.It is produced by solvent extraction method where the oil is extracted and then defatted. Soya meals can be used to prepare sweet or

savory baby food. Soya bean meals are high in B-complex vitamins, have a proven ability to lower cholesterol and is anti carcinogenic. Soy contains essential amino acids, proteins and other nutrients. and is classified as a food and drug. The Soya plant or Glycine max was cultivated as early as 3000 BC in China and was regarded as one of the five sacred crops In China. It was brought to Europe but the climate and the soils were found to be unsuitable for production of the soya crop. Later, it was brought to the USA, where it became popular and was cultivated on a vast scale.

 

Soya Bean Plant
Soya Bean Plant forms a part of the category of leguminous plants, Soya meal is extracted from the soy bean plant and is essentially native to East Asia. A kharif crop, soya bean is, generally, sown in the months of June and July and are harvested in the autumn months peaking in October and November. An annual plant, its height varies ranging from 20 centimeters to over 2 meters. Its various parts like the pod, stem and leaves are covered with brown and grey hairs. The trifolate leaf of the soya bean comprises of three to four leaflets. Before the maturity of the leaf, it starts to fall. Its big pink, white and purple flowers are produced in the axil of the leaf. The fruit is also covered with fine hairs and it grows in clusters of three to five fruits at a time and can achieve nearly eighth centimeters in length. Soya beans are available in a variety of sizes and in many seed coat colors like green, black, yellow, brown and other mixed colors.

 
The strong hull of the bean protects the inside seed from any kind of damage and ensures its survival. Soya bean is ideally grown in the hot summers in temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 30 °C. It can be cultivated on a variety of soils. Soya beans, like most legumes, perform nitrogen fixation and improve the quality of soils. Pod bearing is the most important period of the cultivation process. Modern crops can reach a height of over one meter and be harvested within 80 days after the sowing process. The livestock and poultry industries are the main sectors for the soya meal produce. The soya meal is also chanelled to various related industries like the beef, dairy and pet foods industries. Soy is a popular food source and it is used in the production of the soy meal, soy flour, soy milk, tofu, soy lecithin, soybean oil, soy sauce and other food items.
   

Soya Meal Trade
The most popular vegeterian protein source in the world, the annual worldwide soya meal production is around 132 million tonnes. The major producers of the soya meals in the world are United States, China, Brazil and India. 45-48 million tons is the per year annual trade in India and most of the soya beans are used for production of soya meal in India. It is exported on a large scale. Crop is harvested in the months of August and September, whereas in South America it may be harvested in the month of January and February. India is one of the major exporters of soya beans. Over two thirds of the soya meal is exported to various parts of the world. Soya meal accounts for a sizeable chunk of over 84% of total oilseed meal exports from the country.In Asia, South Korea, Thailand, Philippines and Japan a major importer of soya. India, does not import any soya meals as

domestic requirements are easily met. The major trading centres for soy in India include Indore and Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh, Nagpur in Maharashtra and Kota in Rajasthan. Soya is a heavily traded commodity and the Chicago (CBOT) is known as the largest soya futures market in the world.

Soya bean is the preferred oilseed after groundnuts of which India is the largest producer. Around 3-5 million tons of soya meal is produced in India annually. Soya bean production requires right weather and temperatures. The animal feed sector accounts for the highest demand of a whopping 98%. Pests, diseases and epidemics affecting the cattle and poultry have an unfavorable effect on the price of soya. The prices of maize, jowar and bajra are the other determinants of the price of the soya meal products.

 
 


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