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Ham

An Introduction
Loading down the dining room table is a tradition in itself all over the world. And while chickens and lambs still gobble up most of the meat space, ham is starting to get a little more attention and more room on the platter. Whether bone-in and spiral cut or boneless and ready for slicing, this well-known Easter treat can enhance any meal without too much worry over nutritional value.  With the profusion of fully cooked hams on the market, these have become the the popular choice for the Easter holiday meal in the across the world.

Definition
Ham is processed variety of pork meat which comprises of the entire hind leg of the pig, removed from the carcass and cured. It is

the thigh and rump of pork, cut from the haunch of a pig or boar. Although ham may be cooked and served fresh, most of the ham is cured. Hams cured or smoked in different ways have different flavours. Cured ham has a higher sodium content. It's for any holiday or everyday, and it works for breakfast, lunch, dinner or even the cocktail buffet. Ham isn't just an Easter treat. They are available in supermarkets and online in a wide range of variety from bone-in or boneless to half or whole; spiral sliced or unsliced.

Fresh ham will bear the term "fresh" as part of the product name and is an indication that the product is not cured. "Turkey" ham is a ready-to-eat product made from cured thigh meat of turkey. The term "turkey ham" is always followed by the statement "cured turkey thigh meat."

The usual color for cured ham is deep rose or pink; fresh ham (which is not cured) has the pale pink or beige color of a fresh pork roast; country hams and prosciutto (which are dry cured) range from pink to a mahogany color.

 

Cuts of Ham
Connoisseurs say that bone-in hams have the best flavor. But beyond the bone, there are many more choices that consumers face when buying a ham. Depending on how many people you're serving and the type of meal, you may not want to buy a whole ham. Here's a rundown on your options.

  • Uncut Whole Ham-The choice of ham connoisseurs, especially if you're heating the ham. Best for a big dinner, or if you want leftovers – including a ham bone for flavoring soup. A 12- to 14-pound whole ham will feed 20 to 24 people with leftovers.
  • Spiral-cut ham - These are available as whole or half hams. The center bone is left in, and the ham is sliced in a spiral
  • pattern around it. Each slice is easily released by a small cut with a knife. Best for large buffets or dinners. If served cold, the flavor and texture are the same as that of an uncut ham. But David Rosengarten, food personality and cookbook author, writes that an oven-heated pre-sliced ham may be slightly drier than a whole heated ham, since more surface area is exposed to the oven's heat.
  • Semi-Boneless Ham - Bones are removed from either end, leaving just one large bone in the middle. Since some of the fat is trimmed along with the bone, it's a good choice for those who prefer more lean meat per pound. They are sold in some supermarkets, either whole or in halves, and require additional cooking.
  • Half Ham - Bone-in ham, cut in half, so that you get either the shank end or the butt end. The shank end will not have any center steaks (which are leaner), but the butt end will. Good choice for those who want bone-in flavor but aren't feeding a crowd. Sold both cooked and partially cooked.
  • Boneless Ham - The bones are removed, and the muscles are tumbled together to give the ham a compact shape. The texture isn't exactly the same as that of a bone-in ham. Almost all boneless hams are fully cooked.
  • Ham Steak or Slices - A good choice if you're cooking for two. Supermarkets sell 3/8 -inch ham steaks, cut from the center, which is the leanest portion of the ham. They may be sold fully cooked or partially cooked.

Ready To Eat and Not Ready To Eat Variety of Hams
Hams are either ready to eat or not. Ready-to-eat hams include prosciutto and cooked hams; they can be eaten right out of the package. Fresh hams and hams that are only trichinae treated (which may include heating, freezing, or curing in the plant) must be cooked by the consumer before eating. Hams that must be cooked will bear cooking instructions and safe handling instructions.

Hams that are not ready to eat, but have the appearance of ready-to-eat products, will bear a prominent statement on the principal display panel indicating the product needs cooking, e.g., "cook thoroughly." In addition, the label must bear cooking directions.

 

Ham with Natural Juices
Also a popular choice for a dinner ham, these hams are sold in the supermarket and by some specialty ham companies. Even many packaged cold cuts bear this label. The retention of water results in a packaged product that weighs up to 108 percent of its original weight before curing and smoking.

Curing of Hams

Fresh Ham - For making a high quality cured ham one requires to have first and foremost premium quality fresh ham. Such fresh hams come from young, healthy, fast-growing hogs with a desirable lean-to-fat ratio. Fresh hams can be purchased from a retail store or a local butchers. Hams for curing should have a long thick cushion, a deep and wide butt face, minimal seam and external fat on the collar and alongside the butt face and must weigh less than 24 pounds.

 
Curing Solution
Curing is the addition of salt, sodium or potassium nitrate (or saltpeter), nitrites, and sometimes sugar, seasonings, phosphates and cure accelerators, e.g., sodium ascorbate, to pork for preservation, color development and flavor enhancement.

Nitrate and nitrite contribute to the characteristic cured flavor and reddish-pink color of cured pork. Nitrite and salt inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum, a deadly microorganism which can occur in foods under certain situations.

Curing and flavoring solutions are added to pork by injection and by massaging and tumbling the solution into the muscle, both of which produce a more tender product.

Dry Curing Process
In dry curing, the process used to make country hams and prosciutto, fresh ham is rubbed with a dry-cure mixture of salt and other ingredients. Dry curing produces a salty product. In the trichinae treatment method up to half of the sodium chloride substituted with potassium chloride to result in lower sodium levels. Since dry curing draws out moisture, it reduces ham weight by at least 18% — usually 20 to 25%; this results in a more concentrated ham flavor.

Dry-cured hams may be aged more than a year. Six months is the traditional process but may be shortened according to aging temperature.

These uncooked hams are safe stored at room temperature because they contain so little water, bacteria can't multiply in them. Dry-cured ham is not injected with a curing solution or processed by immersion in a curing solution, but it may be smoked. These variety of hams can be marketed as items that need preparation on the part of the consumer to make them safe to eat. So, as with all meat products, it is important to read the label of hams to determine the proper preparation needed.

Wet Curing or Brine Cure
Brine curing is the most popular way of producing hams. It is a wet cure whereby fresh meat is injected with a curing solution before cooking. Brining ingredients can include ingredients such as salt, sugar, sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium erythorbate, sodium phosphate, potassium chloride, water and flavorings. Smoke flavoring (liquid smoke) may also be injected with brine solution. Cooking may occur during this process.

Smoking and Smoke Flavoring
After curing, some hams are smoked. Smoking is a process by which ham is hung in a smokehouse and allowed to absorb smoke from smoldering fires, which gives added flavor and color to meat and slows the development of rancidity. Not all smoked meat is smoked from smoldering fires. A popular process is to heat the ham in a smoke house and generate smoke from atomized smoke flavor.

Servings
A bone-in ham will yield two to three servings per pound; a boneless ham will yield four to five servings per pound. If you want leftovers, factor those servings in when you buy your ham.

Cooking The Easter Ham
Over the years, the nutritional value of ham has increased (less fat and more lean per serving.) Currently, a three ounce serving of extra-lean ham contains only 100 calories and is an excellent source of high quality protein. And many people these days want to serve ham as part of the traditional Easter Sunday lunch. When cooking your choice of ham for the holidays, follow the cooking instructions on the ham’s label if provided. If no instructions are provided, try one of these cooking methods.
  • Roasting is a good choice for whole hams or ham portions. Place the ham in an open roasting pan and cook at 350oF. The ham will be done when the internal temperature of the meat registers 160oF on the food thermometer. Insert the thermometer into the thickest part of the ham, but not touching the bone in order to get an accurate reading.
  • Cooking in liquid is another option for preparing ham. To use this method, cover the ham with liquid and simmer 4-5 hours in a 350oF oven. Again, the ham is ready when the internal temperature registers 160oF on the food thermometer. Hams most commonly cooked using this method are either country style hams or fresh hams (also called green hams.)
  • Then there’s the happy medium between roasting and cooking in liquid. Simply place the ham in a deep pan (some cooks also use a roasting bag) and add a 2-3 cups of your choice of liquid (juices such as apple, pineapple, and orange or even a can of soda are often used).This will provide flavor to the meat and also steams the meat somewhat as it cooks. The ham will be ready to serve when your food thermometer registers 160oF in the thickest part of the meat.
  • Broiling is quick and easy way to prepare ham slices. Place the ham slice 3-4 inches from the heat source and broil until lightly browned, turning occasionally. A one-inch thick ham slice that is 3-5 inches from heat will cook in 16 to 20 minutes.
Below is a recipe for an easy glaze that is great for a sweet touch added to pre-cooked ham portions, canned hams or ham slices.
  • Honey Glazed Ham
    • ½ cup firmly packed brown sugar
    • ½ cup honey
    • ½ teaspoon dry mustard
    • 6 whole cloves.
Combine all ingredients in a small saucepan; mix well. Bring to a boil; boil 2 to 3 minutes, stirring occasionally. Baste ham with glaze during the fiinal 30 minutes of cooking time for the ham.

Storage and Leftovers
Leftover ham should be kept in the refrigerator, tightly wrapped for three to five days. Although ham may be frozen, the varieties that retain water (natural juices and water-added hams) may suffer a textural change that make it best suited for cooking, rather than serving sliced. Hams with no-water-added freeze well.
 
 
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