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Chemical Fertilizer

An Overview
Agriculture is an empowered arena nowadays. With advancement of technology, new machines related to cultivation, harvesting , etc. are being introduced to enhance the productivity. Now that everything has been taken care of, how can one remain behind to promote the real growth.

Today when the whole life cycle of every plant is in human hands, each step of growth is studied deeply and no one is ignorant of the rising nutrient demands of the plants. Science has evolved with each progressive day and the agricultural front has not been left untouched. New synthetic degradable and non degradable fertilizers have been duly introduced looking at the hastened demands of food.


Today productivity has been increased by a major proportion and the entire credit goes to fertilizers. Fertilizers are a superior and advanced means to promote and enhance productivity. All the fertilizers have been categorized into several types depending on their constituents, strength and various other features. However each fertilizer contain adequate amounts of the needed chemicals, minerals and elements to ensure a healthy and fast growth.

A fertilizer is essentially a blended mixture of one or more organic or inorganic compounds or chemicals needed by the plants for enhanced and nourished growth. Based on these constituent components, fertilizers have been divided in the following categories:

 

Organic Fertilizers
Organic fertilizers constitute of decayed or partially decayed organic material which is to a great extent bio degradable. It includes animal waste and rotten green manure
or also any natural elements which adds to the humus content of the soil and nourishes it is termed manure or fertilizer. It is used by the plants with the help of the microorganisms in the soil which decompose the matter releasing the nutrients and thus making it soluble and ready to be taken in by the plants.
Certain examples of organic fertilizers are: Compost, Manure, fish and bone meal, etc.

 

Inorganic fertilizers
A chemical Fertilizer is known as inorganic fertilizer when its constituents are originated through synthetic means making them non- degradable. To sustain reliable and hastened growth, these fertilizers are added to the soil. Generally these fertilizers are manufactured keeping in mind the natural elements needed by the plants for healthy and convenient growth. They contain one or more of the essential growth nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium and various others. Once added to the soil, these nutrients fulfill the required demands of the plants and provide them the nutrients they naturally lacked or helps them retain the lost nutrients.

How does the Chemical Fertilizer work?
Unlike the longer time-period taken by organic fertilizers to work on the growth of the plants, Chemical fertilizers work in a hastened manner and work their appropriate actions on the plants in the required time-frame. Trusted for their fastened and sure action, these chemical fertilizers are formulated and churned in precisely measured concentrations and combined with suitable elements and acids meant for different crops and plants.

 

The suitable quantities ensure a well formulated action on the plant growth in the estimated time. Various other factors are also kept in mind while using these fertilizers. these factors include:

  • The type of crop
  • Growing condition
  • Soil texture
  • Season, etc.

Listed below are a few of the most prominently used chemical fertilizers:

  • Anhydrous ammonia: A gas which contains 82% nitrogen.
  • Urea: A solid compound containing 46% nitrogen gas.
  • Superphosphate: Proportioned amounts of nitrogen and phosphate
  • Diammonium phosphate: Contains 18% nitrogen and 46% phosphate.

How to apply the chemical fertilizers?
As these constitute of several measured quantities therefore it is essential to keep in mind the correct procedure of applying the fertilizers so that not even a little amount goes wasted and also to ensure that sufficient quantities reach the roots of the plants. Following are a few tips that can be taken care of:

  • Spread the fertilizer over the soil surface or apply it while plowing the land to enable it go underground and get deeply dissolved in the soil
  • Apply it where the seeds will be sown or spread it once the plants sprout up and repeat the same procedure twice before harvesting.

Caution: the fertilizers are harmful therefore avoid any physical contact and tie your mouth with a clean cloth and wear gloves in case of applying it with hands. Inhalation or consumption might cause severe injuries , allergies and death also.

  • Advantages of Chemical Fertilizers over organic fertilizers
  • Chemical fertilizers provide measured quantities of required nutrients.

They work faster than the organic fertilizers. The elements are in the easily soluble form and thus are taken in by the soil immediately. while organic fertilizers wait for the microorganisms to work on them and thus takes time.

Disadvantages

  • Eutrophication: Overgrowth of aquatic vegetation and degradation of water quality due to extra nitrogen accumulation
  • Increased acidity: Many chemical fertilizers are composed of acids like sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid and these acids decrease the soil's quality and heightens the acidity which further registers a bad impact on the plant growth.
  • Loss of bacteria: The natural nitrogen fixing bacteria, rhizobium suffers great blows from the excessive usage of chemical bacteria.

Certain plants are hampered due to excessive dozes of the chemical fertilizers so much so that they also tend to cease growing and yield fruits.

However, organic fertilizer might work slower but they leave an everlasting impact on the soil texture and improves the water holding capacity of the soil, regains its fertility and prevents soil erosion.

 
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