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Introduction

A Glimpse
Agriculture may be defined as an integrated system of techniques to control the growth and harvesting of animal and vegetables. It is an uncomplicated endeavor comprising of technical and practical processes that helps in the maintenance of the ecological balance and protects human resources; and most importantly it is a viable food production system.

Human beings started practicing farming/cultivation some 10,000 years ago. Since then, agriculture as a practice and as a process have undergone substantial changes which have had consequential impact on human progress and lifestyle. Over the ages these developments in agriculture have radically transformed human ecology, society, organizations, demography and even art and religion and have to a certain extent determined the course of scientific progression.
   
Early men gave up their hunter-gatherer lifestyle after they started cultivation of plants as well as domestication animals. Rapid developments were witnessed over the years though technology and crop enhancement options were not available during the successive periods. With the industrial revolution, the entire facet of agriculture changed. The development and easy availability of agricultural techniques led to increased agricultural productivity. The industrial revolution is thus immediately followed by the agricultural revolution across the world. Since then variety has been noticed leading to a boom in the agro products sector, thereby giving birth to innumerable companies, organizations, institutes and more.

With the introduction of eco-friendly pesticides and fertilizers, crop yields increased to a remarkable level. The early 20th century witnessed the usage of synthetic nitrogen, along with mined rock phosphate, pesticides and mechanization including the synthesizing of ammonium nitrate. Rice, wheat, and corn were the main crops that gave the best yield, thus introducing the Green Revolution. Export of technologies, pesticides and fertilizers from the developed countries to the developing countries, further increased the yields in all regions almost equally.

Organic farming, a concept introduced in the 1900s, that overused pesticides and synthetic fertilizers, stayed dormant for several decades. This was because the cultivation process damaged the long-term fertility of the soil. The European Union first certified organic food in 1991 and then  began research, exploration, use of alternative technologies like integrated pest management and selective breeding. Today the markets of developed and also developing countries across the world are flooded with genetically modified food.
 
Forms of Agriculture
Depending upon the purpose for which food is produced and livestock is raised, agriculture can be divided into two groups. These two are:
Subsistence Agriculture:
This form of agriculture can be definedas production of a certain amount of food that is enough to sustain the family producing food. The farmer engaged in such type      of farming does not produce in order to sell the food to the market, but retains it for himself and his family. It is very rare to have surplus amount of produce in subsistence agriculture and therefore there is no scope for any commercial profit. Subsistence agriculture is practiced without buying any fertilizers. This type of agriculture can survive for a longer duration in those area where there is sparse population; but in densely populated areas, it can have serious repercussions in the form of damage to the environment and depletion of soil nutrients

Commercial Agriculture:
The practice of producing crops and raising livestock for the purpose of selling the end products in the market for gaining monetary benefits is termed as 'commercial     agriculture'. It is defined as the production of those products and commodities that can be consumed by the end users through wholesale and retail distribution. Commercial agriculture includes raising of livestock but does not include crops that are grown solely for consumption within the household.
 
Environmental Impact of Agriculture
It has been observed that intensive farming can alter the natural environment leading to some major problems. Following are the ways by which agriculture can affect nature:
  • Increasing area being brought under cultivation can have a negative impact on the wildlife and can completely reduce wildlife habitat
  • Surplus use of fertilizers can pollute rivers and lakes
  • It can hugely affect the flora and fauna
  • There can be depletion of mineral in the soil
  • Agriculture can also create bad odor from the agricultural wastes
  • It can lead to soil erosion.
 
 
Various Kinds of Agricultural Practices
Farmers in India and around the world have now resorted to more advanced techniques in farming that can lessen the environmental degradation. The various forms of agricultural practices are:

  • Organic Agriculture: In this form of agriculture, one largely does away with synthetic or man made fertilizers and pesticides and adopts those techniques which are ecologically sustainable by using biological rocesses. This is done mainly to have a fertile soil and a healthy livestock
  • Industrial Agriculture: It is defined as a modernized form of farming in which the farmer uses the services of advanced machines and tractors instead of labour of humans and animals. The method of industrial agriculture is used mostly in the developed countries. The method of industrial agriculture comprise constant innovation in farming methods and agricultural machinery
  • Crop Agriculture: This involves meticulous cultivation of food, fiber, etc. It produces not just food but also products which are highly used in industries or medicines. Crop agriculture first came into existence during the Stone Age when hunters made a switch from hunting to a more sophisticated culture of species which were favored.
 
Categories of Agro Products
The various agro foods can be categorized as cereals, seeds, spices, fruits, dehydrated fruits, vegetables, dehydrated vegetables, dry fruits & nuts, edible oil, flowers, fertilizers, tea & coffee, oil crops, aromatic plants, herbs, essential oils, floral absolutes, coconut and coir products, potpourri, processed food & snacks, pickles $ condiments, pet-use products, milk & dairy products, meat & poultry food, marine food supplies, baby foods, animal fodder, etc.

India is the second largest producer of food in the world. Whether it is canned food, processed food,
food grains, dairy products, frozen food, fish, meat, poultry, the Indian agro industry has a huge potential, the significance and growth of which will never cease.

 
Cereals, Seeds, Spices, Fruits, Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, Dehydrated Vegetables, Dry Fruits & Nuts, Edible Oils, Essential Oils, Flowers, Fertilizers, Tea & Coffee, Tobacco & Tobacco Products, Aromatic Plants, Coconut and Coir Products, Processed Food & Snacks, Agricultural Machinery and Equipments, Other Agro Products, and more>>
 
 
 
 Processed Food & Snacks

Porridge
Potato Wafer
Processed Chicken
Processed Seafood and more>>









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